A South African electricity public utility


Energy and Utilities  

Eskom is the state-owned electricity utility in South Africa, established in 1923. It is responsible for generating, transmitting, and distributing electricity to the entire country. As the largest power supplier in Africa, Eskom plays a crucial role in providing electricity to homes, businesses, and industries across South Africa. The company operates a diverse mix of power plants, including coal, nuclear, natural gas, and renewable energy sources.

However, Eskom has faced significant challenges over the years. These challenges include aging infrastructure, financial difficulties, mismanagement, and issues related to the reliability and availability of electricity supply. Eskom's financial struggles have been driven by a combination of high debt levels, operational inefficiencies, and a complex tariff structure.

Load shedding, or scheduled rolling blackouts, has become a common occurrence due to Eskom's struggles to maintain a consistent power supply. This has had adverse effects on the South African economy and daily life for citizens and businesses alike.

To address these issues, there have been efforts to reform and restructure Eskom, including proposals to split the company into separate entities for generation, transmission, and distribution. Additionally, there has been a push to incorporate more renewable energy sources into the power generation mix to reduce the country's heavy reliance on coal, which could contribute to environmental sustainability and energy security.

Eskom's challenges have broader implications for South Africa's economic and social development, as a stable and reliable electricity supply is essential for various sectors and overall growth. The future of Eskom will likely involve a combination of financial restructuring, operational improvements, and a transition toward cleaner energy sources to ensure a sustainable and resilient electricity supply for the country.


Eskom, officially known as Eskom Holdings SOC Limited, has a rich history that spans nearly a century. Here's a chronological overview of its history:

Early Years and Formation (1923-1940s):

  • Eskom was founded in 1923 as the Electricity Supply Commission (ESCOM) to address the need for a coordinated and centralized electricity supply in South Africa.
  • The commission's first major project was the construction of the Victoria Falls Power Station in 1924, which harnessed the energy of the Zambezi River to generate electricity.
  • Over the next few decades, ESCOM expanded its operations, building power stations and transmission infrastructure to meet the growing demand for electricity in the country.

Expansion and Growth (1950s-1970s):

  • The 1950s saw significant growth in electricity demand due to rapid industrialization and urbanization in South Africa.
  • ESCOM continued to build new power stations, with an increasing emphasis on coal-fired plants, as coal was abundant in the country.
  • The commission played a pivotal role in electrifying rural areas and providing electricity access to previously underserved communities.

Challenges and Transition (1980s-1990s):

  • During the 1980s and 1990s, ESCOM faced challenges related to aging infrastructure, maintenance backlogs, and increasing demand.
  • Eskom began to explore nuclear power, leading to the construction of the Koeberg Nuclear Power Station, South Africa's only nuclear power plant.
  • The 1990s marked a period of transition as South Africa underwent political changes, leading to the end of apartheid and the opening of the country's markets to global trade.

Restructuring and Modernization (2000s-2010s):

  • In 2001, ESCOM was rebranded as Eskom Holdings SOC Limited.
  • Eskom embarked on a program of modernization, upgrading existing power stations and infrastructure to improve efficiency and reliability.
  • The company faced challenges related to insufficient capacity to meet demand, resulting in periodic rolling blackouts or load shedding.
  • To address the energy supply gap, Eskom initiated the construction of new power stations, such as the Medupi and Kusile coal-fired power plants.

Financial Challenges and Renewable Energy (2010s-2020s):

  • Eskom's financial difficulties became more pronounced due to a combination of high debt, operational inefficiencies, and mismanagement.
  • The company faced criticism for its heavy reliance on coal, contributing to environmental concerns and climate change.
  • The South African government began promoting renewable energy as part of its energy mix, leading to the implementation of the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Program (REIPPPP) to encourage private investment in renewables.
  • Eskom's challenges with load shedding continued, affecting the country's economy and daily life.

Reforms and Future Prospects:

  • In the 2020s, discussions about restructuring Eskom gained momentum. Proposals included unbundling the company into separate entities for generation, transmission, and distribution to enhance efficiency and financial stability.
  • The transition to cleaner energy sources, such as solar, wind, and natural gas, gained importance to reduce the environmental impact of power generation and ensure long-term sustainability.
  • The future of Eskom involves a complex mix of financial restructuring, operational improvements, renewable energy integration, and the challenge of providing reliable electricity while addressing environmental concerns.


Eskom's mission revolves around providing reliable and affordable electricity to South Africa, fostering economic growth, and enhancing social development. Historically, it aimed to empower industries, improve living standards, and offer equal access to electricity. More recently, the mission incorporates environmental responsibility by transitioning to cleaner energy sources. This involves modernizing infrastructure, ensuring energy security through diverse sources, and achieving financial sustainability.


The vision might have aimed to position Eskom as a driving force behind the nation's economic development. This could involve powering industries, attracting investments, and promoting job creation through a reliable and abundant supply of electricity.

Key Team

Calib Cassim (CFO )

Bheki Nxumalo (Group Executive of Group Capital)

Bongani Nqwababa (Group Executive of Commercial and Technology)

Siyabonga Gama: (Group Executive of Transmission)

Motlhabane Ramashi (Group Executive of Customer Services)

Products and Services

Eskom provides a range of products and services related to electricity generation, transmission, and distribution. As of my last update in September 2021, here are some of the key products and services offered by Eskom:


Electricity Generation: Eskom produces electricity from various sources, including coal-fired power plants, nuclear facilities, hydropower stations, and renewable energy sources like wind and solar. These power generation facilities produce the electricity that is supplied to consumers and industries.


Electricity Distribution: Eskom is responsible for distributing electricity to various regions and local municipalities across South Africa. This involves managing the infrastructure and systems needed to transport electricity from generation facilities to consumers.

Grid Maintenance and Upgrades: Eskom provides maintenance services to ensure the reliability and stability of the electricity grid. This includes regular inspections, repairs, and upgrades to the transmission and distribution infrastructure.

Energy Solutions: Eskom might offer energy-related solutions to help consumers and businesses optimize their electricity usage. This could include energy efficiency advice, demand-side management programs, and information on energy-saving practices.

Leadership team

Mpho Paul Makwana ( Chairman )

André de Ruyter (CEO)


Energy and Utilities

Number of Employees
Above 50,000
Megawatt Park, Maxwell Drive, Sunninghill, Sandton, JOHANNESBURG.
Company Registration
Social Media

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