Frances H. Arnold

American scientist and chemical engineer who has made significant contributions to the field of protein engineering
Summary

Frances Hamilton Arnold is a renowned American scientist and engineer who has made significant contributions to the field of bioengineering and chemical engineering. Born on July 25, 1956, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Arnold's pioneering work in directed evolution of enzymes has revolutionized the way scientists approach protein engineering. Her research has led to the development of novel proteins that solve complex chemical problems and has opened new avenues for environmentally friendly manufacturing processes.

Arnold's groundbreaking achievement came in 1993 when she conducted the first directed evolution of enzymes. This process involves manipulating DNA sequences and selectively breeding enzymes to enhance their functions and properties. By emulating the principles of natural selection, Arnold has successfully engineered enzymes that outperform those found in nature, enabling more efficient and sustainable chemical reactions. Her work has found applications in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, renewable energy, and agriculture.

In recognition of her groundbreaking contributions, Frances Hamilton Arnold has received numerous accolades throughout her career. She was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2018, becoming the fifth woman to receive this prestigious honour. Arnold's dedication to scientific excellence and her vision of utilizing the principles of evolution to address real-world challenges have solidified her status as a pioneering figure in the field of bioengineering. Her work continues to inspire scientists and engineers worldwide, paving the way for innovative solutions to society's pressing chemical problems.

She serves as the Linus Pauling Professor of Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering, and Biochemistry at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, California, USA and is Director and was named to the board of Alphabet Inc. (Google's parent company) in 2019.

Biography

Frances Arnold is a renowned American scientist and chemical engineer who has made significant contributions to the field of protein engineering. She was born on July 25, 1956, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Arnold grew up in Edgewood, Pennsylvania, in a family with a tradition of military service. She displayed a rebellious and independent nature from an early age, which often put her at odds with her traditional-minded parents. As a teenager, she participated in antiwar demonstrations and even hitchhiked to Washington, D.C., to join protests against the Vietnam War.

Despite the challenges, Arnold excelled academically and gained admission to Princeton University, where she chose to study mechanical engineering, a field that was unusual for female students at that time. She pursued diverse interests during her undergraduate years, including studying languages and working at a factory in Italy. After graduating from Princeton in 1979, she developed an interest in alternative energy and worked for the Solar Energy Research Institute in Colorado.

In the 1980s, Arnold shifted her focus to the potential of biofuels in addressing energy needs. She pursued a PhD in chemical engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, where she studied the concept of "directed evolution." This revolutionary approach involved inducing random mutations in enzymes and then screening them for desired properties. By mimicking the principles of natural evolution, Arnold was able to create new proteins in the laboratory.

Arnold's work in directed evolution gained widespread recognition when she published her findings in 1993. This groundbreaking research opened up new possibilities in medicine, neurobiology, chemical synthesis, and alternative energy. She has developed enzymes that function in airless environments, reducing the need for expensive equipment in biofuel production. Arnold's innovations have also contributed to the development of new drugs and treatments for diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

Throughout her career, Arnold has faced personal challenges, including the loss of loved ones and her own battle with breast cancer. However, she has remained dedicated to her scientific pursuits and has made remarkable contributions to her field. She currently holds the position of Linus Pauling Professor of Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering, and Biochemistry at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

Frances Arnold's exceptional achievements have garnered numerous accolades and awards. In 2018, she became the fifth woman and the first American woman to receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. She has also received the National Medal of Technology and Innovation and the Charles Stark Draper Prize, among many others.

Apart from her scientific contributions, Frances Arnold has been involved in various organizations and initiatives. She co-founded Gevo, Inc., a company focused on producing fuels and chemicals from renewable resources. She also co-founded Provivi, a company researching alternatives to pesticides for crop protection. Arnold has served on the corporate board of Illumina Inc. and was named to the board of Alphabet Inc. (Google's parent company) in 2019.

In January 2021, she was appointed as an external co-chair of President Joe Biden's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST). Her role involves helping identify scientists for positions in the administration and setting a scientific agenda for PCAST.

In addition to her scientific work, Arnold is known for her active and adventurous lifestyle. She enjoys skiing, scuba diving, and dirt biking. Arnold continues to inspire and mentor younger colleagues while conducting research and contributing to scientific advancements.


Vision

Frances Hamilton Arnold has a visionary perspective when it comes to scientific research and its potential impact on society. Her work in directed evolution of enzymes reflects a vision of harnessing the power of nature to solve humankind's chemical problems in a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner. Here are some key aspects of Frances Arnold's vision:

  • Innovation through Evolution: Arnold recognizes that evolution, through the process of adaptation, has resulted in a vast diversity of life forms perfectly suited to their environments. Drawing inspiration from this natural process, she has pioneered the concept of using genetic change and selection to engineer proteins that can address real-world challenges. By mimicking nature's evolutionary mechanisms, Arnold envisions the creation of novel enzymes and catalysts that surpass the capabilities of those naturally occurring.
  • Composing with DNA: Arnold's vision involves leveraging the tools of nature to "compose" with DNA and generate enzymes that outperform those provided by nature itself. By manipulating genetic sequences and selectively breeding enzymes with desired properties, she aims to create proteins that are better suited for specific applications. This approach holds immense potential for revolutionizing industries such as alternative energy, medicine, and manufacturing.
  • Sustainable Solutions: A central theme in Arnold's vision is the pursuit of environmentally friendly solutions. She seeks to replace chemically synthesized products with biologically based alternatives, reducing the reliance on harmful and unsustainable materials. By designing enzymes that can catalyze chemical reactions more efficiently, Arnold aims to enable greener manufacturing processes, ultimately contributing to a more sustainable future.
  • Adapting and Innovating: Arnold's vision extends beyond her own research. She encourages collaboration and innovation among scientists, urging them to adapt and evolve in tandem with the challenges and opportunities presented by the world. She sees the potential for researchers to utilize the process of evolution to adapt to changing needs, leverage renewable resources, and create solutions that align with the inherent resilience and beauty of the planet.

Frances Hamilton Arnold's vision is driven by a deep understanding of the power of evolution and the potential it holds for scientific advancement. Her pioneering work in directed enzyme evolution exemplifies her commitment to addressing global challenges through innovative and sustainable means. By combining the principles of evolution with engineering, she envisions a future where nature-inspired solutions play a pivotal role in shaping a better world.


Recognition and Awards
Nobel Prize in Chemistry (2018) - Millennium Technology Prize (2016) - National Academy of Engineering (NAE) Draper Prize (2011) - National Medal of Technology and Innovation (2011) - Raymond and Beverly Sackler Prize in Convergence Research (2017) - Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) - Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences - Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology - Fellow of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering - International Fellow of the UK's Royal Academy of Engineering (2018) - Member of the National Academy of Engineering (2000) - Member of the National Academy of Medicine (2004) - Member of the National Academy of Sciences (2008) - Inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame (2014)

References

 

Frances H. Arnold
Nationality
American
Residence
United States
Occupation
Professor of Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering, and Biochemistry at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech)
Known for
Nobel Prize in Chemistry (2018)
Accolades
Nobel Prize in Chemistry (2018) - Millennium Technology Prize (2016) - National Academy of Engineering (NAE) Draper Prize (2011) - National Medal of Technology and Innovation (2011) - Raymond and Beverly Sackler Prize in Convergence Research (2017) - Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
Education
Bachelor of Science (BS) degree in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering from Princeton University (1979) - Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of California, Berkeley (1985)
Social Media
Mon Feb 26 2024
About

businessabc offers a global business, SMEs wiki directory blockchain, NFTs, AI powered marketplace for businesses worldwide.

Follow Us
Produced by
In collaboration with
Logo

Copyright 2023 © businessabc powered by ztudium