Herbert Alexander Simon was an American political scientist whose work also influenced the fields of computer science, economics, and cognitive psychology. His primary research interest was decision-making within organizations and he is best known for the theories of "bounded rationality" and "satisficing". He received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1978 and the Turing Award in computer science in 1975. His research was noted for its interdisciplinary nature and spanned across the fields of cognitive science, computer science, public administration, management, and political science. He was at Carnegie Mellon University for most of his career, from 1949 to 2001, where he helped found the Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science, one of the first such departments in the world.
Notably, Simon was among the pioneers of several modern-day scientific domains such as artificial intelligence, information processing, decision-making, problem-solving, organization theory, and complex systems. He was among the earliest to analyze the architecture of complexity and to propose a preferential attachment mechanism to explain power law distributions.
Herbert Alexander Simon, born on June 15, 1916, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was a pioneering figure in the fields of economics, psychology, computer science, and artificial intelligence. He made profound contributions to our understanding of human decision-making processes and the development of computer programs that simulate human problem-solving. Simon's work has left an enduring impact on multiple disciplines.
Simon's academic journey began at the University of Chicago, where he earned his bachelor's degree in political science in 1936. He then pursued a master's degree in administration at the University of Chicago, which laid the foundation for his interest in organizational decision-making. Later, he completed his Ph.D. in political science at the same institution in 1943.
One of Simon's most influential concepts is "bounded rationality," which challenges the traditional economic notion of humans as perfectly rational decision-makers. He proposed that individuals make decisions under constraints such as time, information, and cognitive limitations. This concept revolutionized the field of economics and has far-reaching implications in various domains, from psychology to management.
In the realm of artificial intelligence, Simon collaborated closely with Allen Newell to develop the Logic Theorist, one of the earliest artificial intelligence programs. Their work laid the foundation for the development of AI systems that could solve complex problems and paved the way for future AI research. Simon's ideas on problem-solving, decision-making, and artificial intelligence continue to shape the way we think about human cognition and machine intelligence. Throughout his lifetime, Herbert A. Simon received numerous awards and honors, including the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences in 1978 for his pioneering research on decision-making processes. His multidisciplinary approach to understanding the complexities of human behavior and problem-solving has left an indelible mark on the fields of economics, psychology, artificial intelligence, and beyond.
Simon's groundbreaking work included the development of the concept of "satisficing," which challenged the traditional economic assumption of perfect rationality. His book "Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organizations," published in 1947, is considered a seminal work in the field of management and organizational theory. In this book, Simon introduced the concept of "bounded rationality," emphasizing that human decision-makers are constrained by limited information and cognitive capabilities, a departure from the classical economic notion of unbounded rationality.
Simon's contributions to artificial intelligence were equally significant. He collaborated with Allen Newell to create the Logic Theorist, one of the earliest AI programs. Their work in artificial intelligence laid the foundation for subsequent developments in the field, including problem-solving techniques and symbolic reasoning systems.
In the field of psychology, Simon's research on human problem-solving and decision-making led to important publications like "Human Problem Solving" (1972). He explored the cognitive processes underlying decision-making and problem-solving, shedding light on how humans navigate complex situations with limited information and computational resources.
Herbert A. Simon's visionary contributions spanned multiple disciplines, reflecting a deep commitment to understanding and improving the complex interactions of human cognition, decision-making, and problem-solving. His overarching vision was to bridge the gap between human intelligence and artificial intelligence, aiming to create computational systems that could replicate and enhance human thought processes. Simon envisioned a future where these intelligent systems would not only assist individuals in making better decisions but also offer innovative solutions to intricate problems across various domains.
Simon's vision extended to the realm of economics, where he challenged conventional economic theories by introducing the concept of bounded rationality. He believed that by acknowledging the limitations of human decision-makers, economists could develop more realistic models that better explained real-world behavior. Simon's vision sought to humanize economics, emphasizing the importance of understanding how individuals and organizations make choices in situations of uncertainty and complexity.
Recognition and Awards
- Dorothea Simon Obituary - Pittsburgh, PA - Post-Gazette.com | Post-Gazette.com
- Guru: Herbert Simon | The Economist
- Satisficing: Integrating Two Traditions | Journal of Economic Literature
- The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1978 | NobelPrize.org
- Herbert A. Simon - A.M. Turing Award Laureate | amturing.acm.org
- Nobel Lectures, Economics 1969–1980 | World Scientific Publishing Co.
- Herbert A. Simon – Biographical | nobelprize.org
- Princeton University, Department Of Philosophy, Faculty Since 1949 | philosophy.princeton.edu
- On The Contributions of Herbert A. Simon to Economics | The Scandinavian Journal of Economics
- The Book of Why: The New Science of Cause and Effect | ACM Digital Library
- EPAM-like models of recognition and learning | Cognitive Science
- Five seconds or sixty? Presentation time in expert memory | Cognitive Science
- Five Seconds or Sixty? Presentation Time in Expert Memory | Cognitive Science
- Press Release: Studies of Decision-Making Lead to Prize in Economics | Nobelprize.org
- Herbert A. Simon and the Concept of Rationality: Boundaries and Procedures | Brazilian Journal of Political Economy
- Computer Pioneers - Herbert A. Simon | history.computer.org
- Applications and misapplications of cognitive psychology to mathematics education | Texas Educational Review
- APS Member History | search.amphilsoc.org
- National Academy of Sciences | Nas.nasonline.org
- Honorary doctors at Lund School og Economics and Management | Lund University
- Publicaciones, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Boletín Informativo | Universidad de Buenos Aires
- Elements of a Theory of Human Problem Solving | Psychological Review