International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is cloud platform, cognitive solutions multinational technology, and consulting company, headquartered in Armonk, New York and present in over 175 countries.






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The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), nicknamed Big Blue, is an American multinational technology corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York and is present in over 175 countries. It specializes in computer hardware, middleware, and software, and provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM is the largest industrial research organization in the world, with 19 research facilities across a dozen countries, and has held the record for most annual U.S. patents generated by a business for 29 consecutive years from 1993 to 2021.

IBM offers a wide range of technology and consulting services; a broad portfolio of middleware for collaboration, predictive analytics, software development and systems management; and the world’s most advanced servers and supercomputers. Utilizing its business consulting, technology and R&D expertise, IBM helps clients become “smarter” as the planet becomes more digitally interconnected. 

As one of the world's oldest and largest technology companies, IBM has been responsible for several technological innovations, including the automated teller machine (ATM), dynamic random-access memory (DRAM), the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the SQL programming language, and the UPC barcode. The company has made inroads in advanced computer chips, quantum computing, artificial intelligence, and data infrastructure. IBM employees and alumni have won various recognitions for their scientific research and inventions, including six Nobel Prizes and six Turing Awards.

With Watson, the AI platform for business, powered by data, they are building industry-based solutions to real-world problems. For more than seven decades, IBM Research has defined the future of information technology with more than 3,000 researchers in 12 labs located across six continents. The company currently employs over 350,000 people, and its products are used by millions of customers around the world. 

IBM is also well known for its corporate culture and its long history of innovation, having invented some of the first computers and produced groundbreaking technology such as the first quantum computer. 

IBM is a publicly traded company and one of 30 companies in the Dow Jones Industrial Average. It is among the world's largest employers, with over 297,900 employees worldwide in 2022. Despite its relative decline within the technology sector, IBM remains the seventh largest technology company by revenue, and 49th largest overall, according to the 2022 Fortune 500. It is also consistently ranked among the world's most recognizable, valuable, and admired brands.


IBM's story begins in the late 19th century when pivotal technologies like the computing scale and the dial recorder emerged. In 1911, four companies united under CTR's banner, creating the foundation for IBM. Thomas J. Watson, Sr., who later became the company's iconic leader, joined in 1914. Under Watson's guidance, IBM adopted pioneering business practices, expanded its reach across continents, and, in 1924, rebranded as "International Business Machines" (IBM). By 1933, most subsidiaries had merged into a single entity, setting the stage for IBM's global presence.

IBM's innovation journey continued with the development of the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator during World War II. In 1952, it introduced the IBM 701, its first commercial stored-program computer. The game-changing IBM 305 RAMAC, introduced in 1956, marked the birth of hard disk drives. The late 1950s saw IBM shift to transistorized designs with the 7000 and 1400 series, setting the stage for the digital era.

In 1956, IBM demonstrated one of the first examples of artificial intelligence when it programmed an IBM 704 to "learn" from its own experience. The birth of the FORTRAN scientific programming language in 1957 and the successful Selectric typewriter in 1961 further cemented IBM's reputation as an industry leader.

IBM's golden era commenced with the launch of the IBM System/360 in 1964, a pioneering computer system family that offered scalability and compatibility. The subsequent IBM System/370 in 1970 solidified IBM's dominance in the mainframe computing arena. The company's market share and influence were unparalleled, driven by its hardware and software solutions, including OS/VS1, MVS, and the CICS transaction processing monitor.

IBM's innovation extended to everyday life as well, with the invention of the magnetic stripe card in 1969 and the Universal Product Code (UPC) in 1974, both of which revolutionized industries.

The 1990s saw IBM venture into acquisitions, including the purchase of PwC Consulting in 2002 and the sale of its personal computer business to Lenovo in 2005. In 2009, IBM acquired SPSS Inc. and gained recognition for its AI program, Watson, which triumphed on Jeopardy!

IBM celebrated its centenary in 2011, and in the same year, it acquired Kenexa, Texas Memory Systems, and SoftLayer Technologies. The company also designed a video surveillance system for Davao City.

IBM continued its transformation with the sale of its x86 server division to Lenovo in 2014. The company then entered into significant partnerships with tech giants like Apple, Twitter, Facebook, and Tencent. In 2015, IBM acquired Merge Healthcare, Cleversafe, and digital assets from The Weather Company.

The company's employees even made history by creating the first molecule movie, "A Boy and His Atom." In 2016, IBM acquired Ustream and formed a cloud video unit.

IBM's resilience and adaptability remained evident when it announced the divestment of its Managed Infrastructure Services unit in 2020. The move demonstrated IBM's commitment to evolving with the industry's changing landscape.

In March 2022, amid the Russian invasion of Ukraine, IBM CEO Arvind Krishna took a stance by suspending all business in Russia, emphasizing the company's values and global impact.


IBM's mission is to lead in the creation, development, and manufacture of the industry's most advanced information technologies, including computer systems, software, networking systems, storage devices, and microelectronics. The company strives to translate its advanced technologies into value for its customers through professional solutions, services, and consulting businesses worldwide. IBM is dedicated to helping clients innovate and succeed by delivering sustainable, trusted, and secure solutions that address their most critical challenges and opportunities in today's rapidly evolving digital world.

At the core of IBM's mission is a commitment to harnessing the power of technology and innovation to improve businesses, industries, and society as a whole. IBM aims to push the boundaries of what's possible by advancing cutting-edge technologies like artificial intelligence, quantum computing, and cloud computing, all while maintaining a strong focus on ethical and responsible business practices. With a history rooted in innovation and a vision for the future, IBM's mission underscores its determination to shape a smarter and more interconnected world.


IBM's vision is to be the world's most trusted and innovative technology company, inspiring progress and driving positive change for businesses, individuals, and society at large. IBM envisions a future where technology enhances human potential, solves complex challenges, and transforms industries, making the world more interconnected and intelligent. The company strives to lead in developing cutting-edge technologies, including artificial intelligence, quantum computing, and hybrid cloud solutions, with a relentless focus on driving sustainable, responsible, and inclusive progress.

Central to IBM's vision is its commitment to creating value for its clients by delivering innovative solutions that address the most pressing issues of our time, from climate change and healthcare to economic resilience and digital transformation. IBM envisions a world where technology is a force for good, helping organizations adapt, thrive, and make informed decisions while upholding the highest standards of ethics, security, and trust. As a trusted partner, IBM aims to empower individuals and businesses to shape a better future, leveraging the power of technology to drive meaningful and lasting advancements in our increasingly interconnected world.

Key Team

Arvind Krishna (Chairman and Chief Executive Officer)

Jonathan H. Adashek (Chief Communications Officer and Senior Vice President, Marketing and Communications)

Kelly C. Chambliss (Senior Vice President and Chief Operating Officer, IBM Consulting)

Michelle H. Browdy (Senior Vice President, Legal and Regulatory Affairs, and General Counsel)

Gary Cohn (Vice Chairman)

Dr. Darío Gil (Senior Vice President and Director, IBM Research)

John Granger (Senior Vice President, IBM Consulting)

James J. Kavanaugh (Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer)

Sebastian Krause (Senior Vice President and Chief Revenue Officer)

Nickle LaMoreaux (Senior Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer)

Ric Lewis (Senior Vice President, Infrastructure )

Bob Lord (Senior Vice President, The Weather Company and Alliances)

Christina Montgomery (Vice President and Chief Privacy & Trust Officer)

Dinesh Nirmal (Senior Vice President, Products, IBM Software)

Paul Papas (Senior Vice President, IBM Consulting, Americas )

Roger Premo (General Manager, Corporate Strategy and Ventures)

Alexander F. Stern (Senior Vice President, Strategy and M&A)

Rob Thomas (Senior Vice President, Software and Chief Commercial Officer)

Joanne Wright (Senior Vice President, Transformation and Operations, IBM)

Kareem Yusuf Ph.D (Senior Vice President, Product Management and Growth, IBM Software)

Recognition and Awards
Watson's Jeopardy! Victory (2011): IBM's artificial intelligence system, Watson, made headlines by winning the televised game show Jeopardy! against human champions Ken Jennings and Brad Rutter. This achievement demonstrated the power of AI and natural language processing. National Medal of Technology and Innovation (2009): IBM's Blue Gene supercomputing program was awarded the National Medal of Technology and Innovation by then-U.S. President Barack Obama. This recognition highlighted IBM's contributions to advancing high-performance computing. Academy Awards (Oscars) for Technical Achievement: IBM has received multiple Academy Awards for its contributions to filmmaking technology, particularly in areas like digital compositing and computer-generated imagery (CGI). Top Rankings in Patents: IBM consistently ranks among the top companies receiving U.S. patents, showcasing its commitment to innovation. The company often leads the list for the number of patents granted in a given year. Corporate Responsibility Awards: IBM has earned recognition for its commitment to corporate social responsibility, including its efforts in sustainability, diversity and inclusion, and ethical business practices. AI Ethics and Responsible AI Recognition: IBM has been acknowledged for its leadership in promoting ethical AI practices and responsible AI development, emphasizing transparency, fairness, and bias mitigation in AI systems. Industry-specific Awards: IBM has received numerous awards in various industries, such as healthcare, finance, and supply chain management, for its specialized solutions and contributions to these sectors. Innovation Awards: IBM has been recognized for its continuous innovation in areas like quantum computing, hybrid cloud solutions, and blockchain technology.

Products and Services

Hybrid Cloud Solutions: IBM provides a comprehensive suite of hybrid cloud solutions that enable businesses to seamlessly integrate and manage cloud and on-premises environments. This includes IBM Cloud Paks, which offer containerized software solutions for faster application development and deployment.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Data Analytics: IBM's AI and data analytics offerings, including Watson, help businesses harness the power of data to gain valuable insights, automate processes, and make data-driven decisions. These solutions are used in various sectors, from healthcare and finance to supply chain management.

Quantum Computing: IBM is a leader in quantum computing, with its IBM Quantum services offering cloud-based access to quantum computing resources. This technology has the potential to solve complex problems that are currently intractable for classical computers.

Blockchain: IBM's blockchain solutions help organizations establish trust and transparency in their business networks. These applications are used in supply chain management, finance, and more.

Cybersecurity: IBM offers robust cybersecurity solutions, including threat detection and response, data protection, and identity management, to help organizations safeguard their digital assets and data.

Managed IT and Cloud Services: IBM provides managed IT services to support businesses in running their IT infrastructure efficiently. This includes cloud hosting, managed security, and disaster recovery services.

Industry-specific Solutions: IBM tailors its products and services to various industries, such as healthcare, banking, and manufacturing, offering specialized solutions to address the unique challenges and needs of each sector.

Consulting and Professional Services: IBM's consulting and professional services teams work closely with clients to design, implement, and optimize technology solutions that drive business growth and innovation.

Training and Education: IBM offers training and certification programs to help individuals and organizations develop the skills and expertise needed to navigate the evolving technology landscape.



Leadership team

Gary Cohn (Vice Chairman)

Jonathan H. Adashek (Senior Vice President, Marketing and Communications and Chief Communications Officer)

Kelly C. Chambliss (Senior Vice President and Chief Operating Officer, IBM Consulting)

Michelle H. Browdy (Senior Vice President, Legal and Regulatory Affairs, and General Counsel)

Dr. Darío Gil (Senior Vice President and Director, IBM Research)



Products/ Services
IBM produces and sells computer hardware, middleware and software, and provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM is also a major research organization, holding the record for most annual U.S. patents generated by a business (as of 2021) for 29 consecutive years. Inventions by IBM include the automated teller machine (ATM), the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the SQL programming language, the UPC barcode, and dynamic random-access memory (DRAM). The IBM mainframe, exemplified by the System/360, was the dominant computing platform during the 1960s and 1970s.
Number of Employees
Above 50,000
Armonk, New York, U.S.
Company Type
Public Limited Company
Company Registration
SEC CIK 0000051143
Above - 1B
Traded as
Social Media

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