Saudi Aramco, officially the Saudi Arabian Oil Group, is a multinational petroleum and natural gas company headquartered in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. It is considered the world's largest oil company and the most profitable company in the world, with estimated reserves of around 260 billion barrels of oil. Saudi Aramco was established in 1933 as the California-Arabian Standard Oil Company, a joint venture between Saudi Arabia and Standard Oil of California, and has since grown to become one of the largest companies in the world.
Saudi Aramco operates in all aspects of the oil and gas industry, from exploration and production to refining and marketing. Its operations span across Saudi Arabia and other countries, with significant assets and operations in Asia, Europe, and North America. The company is also involved in a range of joint ventures and partnerships with other oil and gas companies worldwide.
In 2019, Saudi Aramco went public, making its initial public offering (IPO) on the Saudi Stock Exchange. The IPO raised more than $25 billion, making it the largest IPO in history. Today, Saudi Aramco is considered a global energy leader and is committed to investing in sustainable energy solutions and reducing its environmental impact.
In 1933, Saudi Arabia and Standard Oil of California signed a concession agreement to explore for oil in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The agreement led to the establishment of the California-Arabian Standard Oil Company (CASOC), which later became known as Saudi Aramco.
The early years of Saudi Aramco were focused on exploration and production, with a major discovery of oil in the Dammam Dome in 1938. This discovery led to the development of the first commercial oil field in Saudi Arabia and the construction of the country's first oil pipeline.
During World War II, Saudi Aramco played a vital role in supplying oil to the Allied Forces, with production increasing from around 500,000 barrels per year in the early 1940s to over 5 million barrels per year by the end of the war.
In the post-war years, Saudi Aramco continued to expand its operations, with new oil fields discovered and production increasing. In 1949, the Trans-Arabian Pipeline was completed, allowing oil to be transported from Saudi Arabia to the Mediterranean Sea.
However, tensions between the Saudi government and Saudi Aramco began to surface in the late 1940s, with the government seeking a larger share of the company's profits and more control over its operations. These tensions would eventually lead to the nationalization of Saudi Aramco in 1980, when the Saudi government acquired 100% ownership of the company.
In the 1950s, the company constructed a major oil refinery in the city of Jeddah, increasing its refining capacity and allowing it to produce higher quality petroleum products. The company also continued to discover new oil fields, including the Ghawar field, one of the largest in the world.
During the 1960s and 1970s, Saudi Arabia became a leading member of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), and Saudi Aramco played a key role in the oil embargo of 1973, which resulted in a global oil crisis.
In the 1980s, the Saudi government acquired full ownership of Saudi Aramco, leading to significant changes in the company's structure and operations. The company was reorganized into several subsidiaries, and its focus shifted towards developing new technologies to improve oil recovery and reduce the environmental impact of its operations.
In the 1990s, Saudi Aramco continued to expand its operations, including joint ventures and partnerships with other major oil companies. The company also began to explore alternative energy sources, such as solar power and natural gas, as part of its commitment to sustainability and reducing its environmental footprint.
By the end of the 20th century, Saudi Aramco had become the world's largest oil company, with a significant presence in the global energy market and a reputation for innovation and efficiency.
In the early 2000s, Saudi Aramco focused on increasing its oil production capacity, with several major expansion projects and new oil field discoveries. The company also invested in new technologies to improve efficiency and reduce its environmental impact, such as carbon capture and storage.
In 2016, Saudi Arabia announced plans to partially privatize Saudi Aramco through an initial public offering (IPO), with the goal of raising funds to diversify the country's economy and reduce its reliance on oil. The IPO took place in 2019, with the company listing on the Saudi stock exchange and raising more than $25 billion.
In recent years, Saudi Aramco has continued to invest in new technologies and sustainable energy solutions, including solar power and hydrogen fuel cells. The company has also faced challenges from the COVID-19 pandemic and the ongoing transition away from fossil fuels in many parts of the world.
In 2021, Saudi Aramco announced plans to invest $10 billion in a new global energy industrial city, called "The Line," which will be powered entirely by renewable energy and focus on sustainable industries and technologies.
As the world's largest oil company, Saudi Aramco remains a major player in the global energy market, with a focus on innovation, sustainability, and diversification. However, the company also faces ongoing challenges and opportunities as the energy landscape continues to evolve in the 21st century.
The mission of Saudi Aramco is to responsibly provide the world with dependable, efficient and sustainable energy in an environmentally responsible way. This is achieved by developing and operating energy resources, serving customers with innovative solutions, conducting research and development, and investing in people and communities.
Saudi Aramco is committed to conducting its business in a manner that respects safety, environmental stewardship, and the communities in which it does business.
The vision of Saudi Aramco is to be the world’s leading integrated energy and petrochemical company, and to become a global leader in innovation and sustainability. It seeks to be a responsible corporate citizen and to advocate for the development of a diversified and sustainable energy mix.
Saudi Aramco’s vision is to use its resources to help create a better future for the world and its people. This includes developing innovative technologies, investing in renewable energy sources, creating jobs and promoting economic development, and addressing the challenges of climate change.
Amin H. Nasser (President and Chief Executive Officer)
Nabeel A. Al Mansour (Executive Vice President, General Counsel & Corporate Secretary)
Mohammed Y. Al Qahtani (Executive Vice President Downstream)
Ahmad A. Al Sa’adi (Executive Vice President Technical Services)
Ziad T. Al-Murshed (Executive Vice President & Chief Financial Officer)
Nasir K. Al-Naimi (Executive Vice President Upstream)
Nabeel A. Al-Jama’ (Executive Vice President Human Resources & Corporate Services)
Ashraf A. Al Ghazzawi (Executive Vice President Strategy & Corporate Development)
Ahmad O. Al-Khowaiter (Executive Vice President Technology & Innovation)
Recognition and Awards
Products and Services
The company’s products and services have been classified into following categories:
Exploration: A significant portion of the Saudi Aramco workforce consists of geophysicists and geologists. Saudi Aramco has been exploring for oil and gas reservoirs since 1982. Most of this process takes place at the EXPEC Advanced Research Center.
Refining and Chemicals: While the company did not originally plan on refining oil, the Saudi government wished to have only one company dealing with oil production. Therefore, on 1 July 1993, the government issued a royal decree merging Saudi Aramco with Samarec, the country's oil refining company. The following year, a Saudi Aramco subsidiary acquired a 40% equity interest in Petron Corporation, the largest crude oil refiner and marketer in the Philippines. Since then, Saudi Aramco has taken on the responsibility of refining oil and distributing it in the country.
Currently, Saudi Aramco's refining capacity is 5.4 million barrels per day (860,000 m3/d) (International joint and equity ventures: 2,500 Mbbl/d (400,000,000 m3/d), domestic joint ventures: 1,900 mpbd, and wholly owned domestic operations: 1,000 Mbbl/d (160,000,000 m3/d).
Saudi Aramco's downstream operations are shifting emphasis to integrate refineries with petrochemical facilities. Their first venture into it is with Petro Rabigh, which is a joint venture with Sumitomo Chemical Co. that began in 2005 on the coast of the Red Sea. In order to become a global leader in chemicals, Aramco will acquire 50% of Royal Dutch Shell's stake in their refiner in Saudi Arabia for US$631 million.
In 2022 it was revealed that Saudi Aramco was creating a joint venture with North Huajin Chemical Industries group to create a new company called Huajin Aramco Petrochemical Company which would develop a 300,000-bpd refining facility with ethylene steam cracking capabilities.
Shipping: Saudi Aramco has employed several tankers to ship crude oil, refined oil, and natural gas to various countries. It used to have its own created subsidiary company, Vela International Marine, which was merged with Bahri company, to handle shipping to North America, Europe, and Asia. It is a stakeholder in the King Salman Global Maritime Industries Complex, a shipyard that will be the largest in the world when complete.
Global Investment: Saudi Aramco expanded its presence worldwide to include the three major global energy markets of Asia, Europe, and North America. In April 2019, Aramco has signed a deal to acquire a 13% stake in South Korean oil refiner Hyundai Oilbank for US$1.24 billion. Moreover, on 11 April 2019, Aramco signed an agreement with Poland’s leading oil refiner PKN Orlen to supply it with Arabian Crude Oil.
Liquified Natural Gas: Aramco is planning to be a major producer of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the world. It sold its first cargo of LNG from Singapore to an Indian buyer. The company is looking globally for potential joint ventures and partnerships to achieve its goal regarding LNG market.
- Top 100 companies in the Middle East l Forbes Middle East
- Saudi Aramco’s $161bn profit l The Guardian
- Standard Oil Co. of California: The First Fifty Years l SCV History
- Saudi crown prince says the kingdom’s in talks to sell 1% of Aramco to a ‘leading global energy’ firm l CNBC
- Aramco on Saudi Exchange l Saudi Exchange
- Aramco: How The World’s Most Important Energy Company Works l Wall Street Journal
- Global presence l Aramco
- Standard Oil geologists arrive in Saudi Arabia l History
- CASOC stands for California Arabian Standard Oil Company (now Arabia American Oil Company) l Acronym Finder
- Saudi Aramco: a look ahead l Journal of World Energy Law & Business
- Mar 3, 1938 CE: Oil Discovered in Saudi Arabia l National Geographic
- Saudi Arabia - Country Commercial Guide Oil Gas & Petrochemicals l International Trade Association
- Arabs & World War II: The Sacrifice and the Impact l Arab America
- Saudi ‘Tapline’ first industrial heritage site to be registered l Arab News
- SAUDI ARABIA: NATIONAL CAPACITY l IGF
- Aramco l OPEC
- ‘I was behind it.’ The man responsible for the 1973 oil shock has died l CNN
- THREE DECADES AFTER THE OIL EMBARGO: WAS 1973 UNIQUE? l JSTOR
- Saudi Arabia’s Aramco takeover l Arab News
- Saudi prince unveils sweeping plans to end 'addiction' to oil l Reuters
- Background Reference: Saudi Arabia l U.S. Energy Information Administration
- Saudi Aramco raises $25.6 billion in the world’s biggest IPO l CNN Business
- Aramco awards contracts worth $10bn to develop giant Jafurah gas field l The National News
- Saud Aramco l Wikipedia
- The Iranian Oil Fields are Nationalised l History Today
- Ghawar Oil Field l NS Energy
- Oil Shock of 1973–74 l Federal Reserve History
- Saudi Aramco eyes 12 GW of renewables on carbon reduction path l Renewables Now
- Saudi Aramco is now the world's most valuable company - but for how long? l CBC News
- Aramco Company Profile l Bloomberg
- Saudi Aramco l Crunchbase
- Saudi Aramco recognized as a leader in the Fourth Industrial Revolution l Arab News
- Saudi Aramco l Comparably
- Saudi cuts crude supply to some Chinese refiners in July, sources say l Channel News Asia
- Saudi Arabia is back in the oil market driving seat l Financial Review
- Saudi Arabia hikes July crude prices surprisingly high for Asia buyers l Wio News
- HSBC boosts Saudi investment banking team amid flurry of deals l Bloomberg
Yasir Al-Rumayyan (Chairman )
Dr. Ibrahim A. Al-Assaf (Deputy Chairman)
Mohammed A. Al-Jadaan (Director)
Mohammad M. Al-Tuwaijri (Director)
Andrew N. Liveris (Director)
Lynn Laverty Elsenhans (Director)
Peter L. Cella (Director)
Mark A. Weinberger (Director)
Stuart T. Gulliver (Director)
Khalid H. Al-Dabbagh (Director)
Mr. Amin H. Nasser (Director)
Energy and Utilities