Allen Newell was an American researcher in computer science and cognitive psychology at the RAND Corporation and at Carnegie Mellon University's School of Computer Science, Tepper School of Business, and Department of Psychology. He contributed to the Information Processing Language (1956) and two of the earliest AI programs, the Logic Theory Machine (1956) and the General Problem Solver (1957) (with Herbert A. Simon). He was awarded the ACM's A.M. Turing Award along with Herbert A. Simon in 1975 for their basic contributions to artificial intelligence and the psychology of human cognition.
Allen Newell, a pioneering figure in the field of computer science and artificial intelligence, embarked on a remarkable journey that reshaped our understanding of intelligence and computation. He commenced his academic pursuits by earning a bachelor's degree in physics from Stanford University in 1949, but soon realized his passion lay at the intersection of experimental and theoretical research rather than pure mathematics.
In 1950, Newell joined the RAND Corporation, where he collaborated with Joseph Kruskal and made significant contributions to organizational theory. His innovative work led to the development of theories such as "A Model for Organization Theory" and "Formulating Precise Concepts in Organization Theory." Under the mentorship of Herbert Simon, he earned his PhD from the Tepper School of Business at Carnegie Mellon University.
Newell's career took a pivotal turn when he began exploring the realm of artificial intelligence (AI). In 1955, he authored "The Chess Machine: An Example of Dealing with a Complex Task by Adaptation," which laid out a visionary design for a humanoid chess-playing computer program. This work set the stage for the birth of AI, and Newell's collaboration with Herbert Simon resulted in the creation of the Logic Theorist, considered the first true AI program. Their groundbreaking inventions, including list processing and means-ends analysis, became foundational paradigms in AI research.
In 1956, Newell and Simon presented their AI program at the historic Dartmouth conference, often regarded as the inception of artificial intelligence. This event propelled Newell into a leadership role within the AI community. He went on to establish an AI laboratory at Carnegie Mellon University and continued to make groundbreaking contributions to the field throughout the late 1950s and 1960s. Notable achievements included the General Problem Solver and the formulation of the physical symbol systems hypothesis, which posited that intelligent behavior could be reduced to symbol manipulation.
Newell's crowning achievement came with the development of the cognitive architecture known as Soar and his unified theory of cognition, published in 1990. His work in cognitive architectures continues to influence both AI and computational cognitive science communities. Allen Newell's enduring legacy lies in his profound impact on AI research, fundamentally altering the way we perceive and replicate intelligence through computational means.
Allen Newell, a luminary in the field of artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology, left a lasting legacy through his influential published works. One of his groundbreaking contributions was the development of the "Logic Theorist" in 1956, a computer program designed to prove mathematical theorems. This seminal work, co-authored with Herbert A. Simon, marked the birth of AI and introduced the concept of automated theorem proving, laying the foundation for future advancements in the field.
Another pivotal publication by Newell was his unified theory of cognition, which he introduced in 1990. This comprehensive theory aimed to explain human cognitive processes by simulating the functioning of the human mind in computational terms. Newell's unified theory of cognition represented a significant step forward in our understanding of how the human brain processes information and solved problems, making it a landmark contribution to the fields of cognitive science and artificial intelligence. His research and innovative ideas continue to shape the landscape of AI and cognitive psychology, inspiring generations of researchers and practitioners in these domains.
Allen Newell's visionary perspective revolved around harnessing the power of artificial intelligence to emulate and understand the complexities of human cognition. His vision was to create computer systems that could think, learn, and problem-solve in ways akin to human thought processes. Newell believed that by modeling human cognitive functions, we could unlock new realms of understanding in psychology and artificial intelligence.
Furthermore, Newell envisioned a unified theory of cognition that would serve as a comprehensive framework for explaining how humans think and solve problems. His vision aimed to bridge the gap between psychology and computer science, fostering interdisciplinary collaboration to unravel the mysteries of human intelligence. Allen Newell's forward-looking ideas continue to shape the field of artificial intelligence and cognitive science, inspiring researchers to explore the boundaries of human-machine interaction and advance our understanding of the human mind.
Recognition and Awards
- Allen Newell, 65; Scientist Founded A Computing Field | The New York Times
- Allen Newell, Biographical Memoirs | United States National Academy of Sciences
- 40 years of cognitive architectures: core cognitive abilities and practical applications | Artificial Intelligence Review
- Search Deceased Member Data | United States National Academy of Sciences
- Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter N | American Academy of Arts and Sciences
- A. M. Turing Award | Association for Computing Machinery
- Search Fellows | John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation
- NAE Members Directory - Dr. Allen Newell | United States National Academy of Engineering
- Computer Pioneer Charter Recipients | IEEE Computer Society
- IEEE Emanuel R. Piore Award Recipients | IEEE
- IEEE W.R.G. Baker Prize Paper Award Recipients | IEEE
- The President's National Medal of Science: Recipient Details Allen Newell | US National Science Foundation
- Franklin Laureate Database - Louis E. Levy Medal Laureates | Franklin Institute
- England and Continental Probability in the Inter-War Years | Electronic Journ@l for History of Probability and Statistics
- Prof: Alan Turing Decoded | The History Press
- Alan Turing and the Central Limit Theorem | The American Mathematical Monthly
- Computability: Turing, Gödel, Church, and Beyond | MIT Press
- What Did Turing Do for Us? | NRICH University of Cambridge